The Apadana Palace of Shush was the winter palace of the Achaemenid Kings and the main palace of Darius I. It was built by Darius the Great King of Achaemenid, around the years 515_521 BC in Susa (ancient city) on the remains of Elamite.
The walls of the palace are made of clay and Its columns are made of stone. The area of the Apadana Hall or the Palace is 10434 meters. This palace, which is called an audience hall or Apadana is rebuilt by Artaxerxes II.
This palace has a kiosk-plan with 3 colonnaded iwans on its northern, eastern, and western sides. The central hall is 58×58 meters and has 36 columns. The height of each column is about 20 meters and is made with the cow bracket capital. Each iwan (porch) has two rows of six columns.
The 110 rooms and the hall have been discovered all over the complex. The three largest courtyards of six courtyards are situated around the eastern and western axis, they have been located inside the palace and connected by a large corridor to the northern part.
The other smallest courtyards are situated in the northern side of this complex. The different rooms and buildings of the palace were illuminated and ventilated by the courtyards.
In 1880, a group of French archaeologists elicited the palace out of the ground, and they cut columns and capitals of this palace with saw, and transferred them to France. And today in Susa, there are only a few column bases, and the does not exist in its former form. Most of these objects are preserved in the Louvre Museum.
According to the diary of Jane Dieulafoy:
Yesterday, I was watching the great stone cow which was found in recent days with sadness, it is about twelve thousand kg! It is impossible to move such a massive mass. Finally, I could not control my anger, I took a hammer, and I hit these rocky animal. I hit that with brutal blows. The head of the column split as a ripe fruit.