Birjand is the capital of southern Khorasan province and the city center of Birjand in eastern Iran. In 2011, the city had 178,020 inhabitants and was the forty-ninth city of Iran.
Birjand is the first city in Iran with water supply organization and the Birjand’s “Bongah Ablooleh” Company is known as the first water supply company in Iran. This city is also the second city in Iran, which received urban plumbing in 1923 and before Tehran. The Akbariyeh Garden is one of the city’s historic monuments which’s registered at UNESCO’s 2012 thirty-fifth session as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Shokatiyeh School in this city is the third school of modern education – after the Dar-ul Funun of Tehran and Roshdieh of Tabriz. Due to the political and strategic situation of Birjand, the third airport in the country was built in this city in1933 after the airport of “Ghal-e Morghi” and “Bushehr“, and before World War II, British and Russian consulates were operating in Birjand.
The climate of Birjand is semi-desert and has cold winters, and dry and warm summers. The rainfall in this city is low, due to its climate, and most of it occurs from December to April, which in winter is often snowfall.
The Birjand Meteorological Station was established in 1955. According to the station’s data, the average annual maximum and lowest temperatures are 24 and 8 degrees Celsius.
The lowest recorded temperature in the city was January 16, 1993, equal to -21.5 degrees Celsius, and the highest on July 11, 1967, at 44 degrees Celsius. The city of Birjand has an average temperature of less than zero degrees in 76 days of the year and a temperature of over 30 degrees Celsius in 142 days of the year.
The total annual precipitation in the city of Birjand is, on average, 171 mm per year. The highest rainfall in one day occurred on May 2, 1957, and hit 52 mm of rain in the city. Also, the average annual relative humidity in this city is 36%.