The Bisotun inscription is the world’s largest inscription, the first well-known Iranian text, and the works of the Achaemenid dynasty (520 BC) located in Bisotun city of Harsin, 30 km from the city of Kermanshah, on the hillside of Mount Bistoun.
inscription of Bisotun is one of the most important documents of the history of the world and the most important historical text during the Achaemenid period, which describes the victory of Darius the Great on the Gomat of the Magh and the trapping of the rebellion.
The area of Bisotun is one of the national monuments of Iran, and since 2006 it has been registered as one of the Iran’s monuments on the UNESCO world heritage.
The Bisotun inscription is built at a height of several dozen yards from the ground and on a slope south of Mount Pravo. Other remained monuments are a staircase in the upper part of Bisotun Mountain, which is believed to have been used by stone makers to reach the site, and after finishing the work, stained the stairs for inaccessibility of the cut. The Bisotun inscription has been created on lime stones, which is based on the effects of brown enamel, which, after mixing with oxidized lime, as well as lead residues found in the first few lines of the work, seems to end up improving the longevity of the monument the whole facade is covered with unknown material.
The height of the inscription is 7 meters and 80 cm and its length is 22 meters, and in the center of it there are 5 columns with the ancient Persian cuneiform. Each of the four initial columns is somewhat less than 2 meters in width and 4 meters high. Ancient Persian text has 525 lines in total. On the five columns mentioned above, Ahura Mazda is located on the screen and is flying on all of these forms.
Ahuramazda is embodied with a human face and a rectangular beard and emerges from the envelope of a very large sunlight that is illuminated. On his head is a shiny crown with horns, which is a token of his godliness. Ahuramazda extends his left hand with a ring toward Darius, and is thus engaged in a ceremony for the surrender of power and domination of the kingdom to Darius. He wants to bless Darius with his right hand who raised it. Darius himself has a crown kingdom.
His mustaches are twisted and the beard is rectangular and in the manner of the beard of the kings of Assyria. Darius’s right hand lies in a state of prayer and a need for Ahura Mazda, and he has taken an archer with his left hand. Darius is shown in the usual size, 180 cm in height. Darius has kicked the geomat with his right leg, so that one leg and two hands of the geomat are in a state of supplication. On the left, behind the Darius are two of the courtiers with an archer and a beam and both have a long beard.
Bisotun Mountain is one of the hill of Mount Paraw, which is located near the city of Bisotun and 32 km east of city of Kermanshah. The rock relief of Bisotun Inscription is on a cliff at this mountain.
In the mythology of Khosrow and Shirin of Nizami Ganjavi, there is a sculptor named Farhad, falls in love with Shirin madly. Based on this mythology, due to Khusraw Parvēz (The twenty-fourth Sassanid king and one of the most famous Kings of Sassanian Empire) falls in love with Shirin too, he sends Farhad on an exile to Behistun mountain with the impossible task of carving stairs out of the cliff rocks, and if he succeeds perfectly, he can marry Shirin. Khosrow Parvez believed that Farhad would never be able to completely put up the Mount Bisotun.
After years of carving and a great deal of work progress, Khosrow is worried about the success of Farhad, so after consultation with its consultants, he sends a messenger to Farhad and gives him false news of Shirin’s death. Hearing this false news, Farhad puts his ax down and throws himself from the mountaintop and dies.
So far, the 28 historical monuments of Bisotun Mountain have been recorded on the list of national monuments and 13 other works including the Bisotun Inscription were recorded on July 8, 2005.