Golestan National Park or Golestan Forest is a Protected Area in the East of Golestan Province and West of North Khorasan Province. This region is the oldest registered national park in Iran and a rare sanctuary for wildlife, which has 1,350 plant species and 302 species of animals, including half of Iran’s mammalian species, covering about 900 square kilometers, which is why it has been registered as The biosphere reserve by UNESCO at the UNESCO World Heritage List. 15% of the plant species, one-third of the species of birds, and more than 50% of the country’s mammalian species live in the park.
Golestan Forest is undoubtedly the most valuable region in Iran, both in terms of quantity and variety of animal and plant life. The Golestan National Park’s biodiversity is even more than some European countries that is hundreds of times larger than the park.
Golestan National Park is one of the best habitats for large mammals such as Persian leopards, brown bears, Indian wolves, Lynx, maral deer, roe deer, wild goats, Goitered gazelle and boars, and is especially famous for the large population of urial. The urial population of the Golestan National Park in the 1350s was estimated to be around 150,000, equivalent to nearly three quarters of the total world population of urial sheep.
The difference in height in the park is about 2000 meters (from 2411 meters to 400 meters above sea level), which has created a variety of different habitats. The average rainfall in different areas of the forest varies from about 700 mm to 150 mm per year.
Agh Sou cascade and Golestan Forest Fall with a height of 70 meters are the famous waterfalls of this park. There are also several rivers in the park and more than 21 springs have been identified.