The lake and wetland of Hamun are the third largest lake in Iran after the Caspian Sea and Lake Urmia, the seventh international wetland and one of the biosphere reserves in Iran.
The lake and wetland of Hamoon are located in the province of Sistan. The lake consists of three small lakes called Hamoon Pozek, Hamoon Sabouri and Hamoon Helmand, which join together in abundance of water and form the common lake between Afghanistan and Iran.
The Helmand River is the main artery into Lake Hamun, and the rivers of Khashrud, Farah, Harut, Shoor rud, Hosseinabad and Nehbandan are pouring to the Lake Hamun.
The area of Lake Hamun is 5660 square kilometers in the time of water abundance, of which 3,820 square kilometers is owned by Iran and the remainder belong to Afghanistan. Nevertheless, the Hamun lake is dependent on the Helmand River, and this dependency has caused any fluctuations in Helmand River’s water level to create problems for the whole system.
Hamun lagoon was registered by UNESCO as a biosphere reserve at the 4th World Biodiversity Conservation Conference held in Lima, Peru in 2016, Thus, the number of biosphere reserves in Iran has increased to 12.
The Lake Hamun has been facing a water crisis for a long time, and the drying of large parts of it has caused various environmental, social and economic problems in the region.
In May 2014, after flooding from Afghanistan, Hamun Lake was revived after 15 years. However, environmental experts in Sistan and Baluchistan warn that the restoration of the Hamun Lake is temporary and the threat of drying continues to threaten this international wetland.